Monday, June 29, 2009

Do you know basic facts about testosterone?


1.What is the primary sex hormone produced in males which is responsible for the development of penis and testes, growth of facial hair and deepening of voice?


2.Where is the site of the production for the testosterone hormone?

TESTES, OUTER PART OF THE ADRENAL GLAND(adrenal cortex) and OVARIES (small amount)

3. What is the normal value of testosterone in adult male and in adult female?

Men: 270-1070 ng/dL or 9-38nmol/L (values in elderly men diminish moderately)
Women: 15-70 ng/dL or 0.52-2.4 nmol/L

4.What are the diseases or conditions associated with the person that has high level of testosterone? Give at least three?

Adrenal neoplasms, Ovarian tumor, trophoblastic disease during pregnancy

5.What are the diseases or conditions associated with the person that has low level of testosterone? Give at least three?


6.How is testosterone measured in the body?

If a doctor suspects someone is not producing enough testosterone, he/she will check if the total blood testosterone level falls into the acceptable range.

The doctor also may instruct the laboratory to measure the amount of free or loosely bound testosterone (about 30 percent of the total testosterone is strongly bound to a protein called sex hormone binding globulin, known as SHBG; about 68 percent is weakly bound to another protein called albumin) and the amount of free testosterone (only about two percent circulates freely in the blood).

Blood levels of SHBG increase with age, so older men may have a higher percentage of bound testosterone and a lower percentage of free testosterone.

7.What are the treatment given to the person that has deficient in testosterone?

Testosterone deficiency can be treated by:

Intramuscular injections, generally every two or three weeks
Testosterone patch worn either on the body or on the scrotum (the sac that contains the testicles)

Testosterone gel

Mucoadhesive material applied above the teeth twice a day
hormone replacement

8.What are the causes of testosterone deficiency?

As a man ages, the amount of testosterone in his body gradually declines. This natural decline starts after age 30 and continues throughout life.

Other causes of lowered testosterone levels include:

Ø Injury or infection to the testicles

Ø Chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer

Ø Genetic abnormalities such as Klinefelter's Syndrome (extra X chromosome)

Ø Hemochromatosis (too much iron in the body)

Ø Dysfunction of the pituitary gland (a gland in the brain that produces many important hormones)

Ø Inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis (a condition that causes inflammation of the lungs)

Ø Medications, especially hormones used to treat prostate cancer and corticosteroid drugs

Ø Chronic illness

Ø Chronic kidney failure

Ø Liver cirrhosis

Ø Stress

Ø Alcoholism

9.What are the differences between testosterone and bio testosterone?

Testosterone is present in the blood as "free" testosterone (2-3%) or bound testosterone. The latter may be bound to either albumin (a serum protein) or to a specific binding protein called Sex Steroid Binding Globulin (SSBG) or Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG).

The binding of testosterone to albumin is not very tight and is easily reversed; so the term bioavailable testosterone (BAT) refers to the sum of free testosterone plus albumin-bound testosterone.

10.Is Testosterone replacement safe to treat testosterone deficiency?

In general, hormone replacement therapy is safe. It is associated with some side effects, including:

Acne or oily skin

Mild fluid retention

Stimulation of prostate tissue, with perhaps some increased

urination symptoms such as a decreased stream or frequency

Breast enlargement

Case analysis:

1.A 16 year old woman upon physical examination showed excessive growth of axillary and pubic hair than her peers; enlargement of external genitalia and deepening of voice. The patient was subjected to undergone clinical test:

Laboratory results:

Free testosterone: 105 ng/dL
Total Testosterone: 12.5pg/m
Prolcatin: 3ng/mL


1.Is there any abnormal results obtained in the Laboratory results?
If there is, give the normal values.


Definitely the obtained results are abnormal,

Laboratory results: Interpretations: Normal Values:

TOTAL testosterone: 105 ng/dL ABNORMAL 15-70 ng/dL
FREE Testosterone: 12.5pg/m ABNORMAL 1.0-8.5pg/mL
Prolcatin: 3ng/mL ABNORMAL

2.What is the diagnosis of the doctor based on the laboratory findings?
Based on the results, The woman has an abnormally increased of testosterone level in her body that's make her showed excessive growth of axillary and pubic hair than her peers; enlargement of external genitalia and deepening of voice. The levels of Testosterone should be lesser in amount for woman as compared to the males because it is the primarily responsible for the male characteristics.

3.What are the possible treatment may given to the patient?
Low estrogens allow the circulating androgens and testosterone to be more freely available and thus stimulate cells more. Increasing the circulating estrogen in the blood by taking estrogens will increase the proteins that bind the androgens and help decrease the effects of all androgens, whether the levels are normal or excessive.

Case analysis
2.A 26 year old male happened to visit a doctor and complaining of erectile dysfunction, fatigue, hot flashes, polyuria,night sweats and anxiety. The doctor had requested him to undergone several Clinical chemistry test:
Laboratory findings:

Free Testosterones: 200ng/dL
Total Testosterones:25pg/ml
Glucose: 250mg/dl
Urinalysis: Normal results
Sperm count: Decreased level


1. Is there any abnormal results obtained in the Laboratory results?
If there is, give the normal values.

Laboratory results: Interpretations: Normal Values:

TOTAL Testosterone: 200ng/dL ABNORMAL 270-1070 ng/dL
FREE Testosterone:25pg/ml ABNORMAL 50-210 pg/mL
Glucose: 250mg/dl ABNORMAL 60-120mg/dL
Urinalysis: Normal results
Sperm count: Decreased level ABNORMAL

2. What is the diagnosis of the doctor based on the laboratory findings?


Based on the laboratory findings, The Physician diagnosed hypogonadism because all the symptoms manifested by the man are all due to low testosterone level in the body. Hypoganadism is a disease may acquired due to low testosterone level.

3. What are the possible treatments that may be given to the patient?


Hypogonadism is most often treated by replacement of the appropriate hormones.

For men, this is testosterone. Commonly-used testosterone formulations include transdermal testosterone, injectable testosterone, and buccal testosterone.

Oral testosterone is no longer used in the U.S. because it is broken down in the liver and rendered inactive.



  1. good post. add some titles to each of your post... haha

  2. good post...can you simply the answers to your questions to make it more simplify..well done..=)

  3. hi. you can improve your post by removing the other unnecessary things that are written which adds to the confusion. good color scheme, brings out good vibes. keep it up!


  4. i see, you did add the title to your post. good job. i also agree with the others that simplification of the answers would make your post better; and you can make the answers uniformed, some answers were bold, some were black, one is red. these simple things have some effects also. then again, good post.

  5. hi zu,
    you could probably just point out the most important topic that are needed to your answers.
    and need to delete some confusing words..

    but still it is very complete and informative post

  6. hi! kindly change your lay out. because it was same as mine. anyway, good post! Ü

  7. very informative post but you could simplify the post for it to be more understandable but overall good job. keep it up

  8. good post but simlify your post for your readers to esily understnad your thought.., keep it up

  9. Your post is informative... Good job... Keep it up..

  10. So the ovaries produce testosterone, too? Why do women need male sex hormone? Can they have too little of it? What happens then?